Surface Modified Benzoylated Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Bast Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites


  • Haydar U. Zaman Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3787, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Ruhul A. Khan Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3787, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Okra bast fiber, Polypropylene, Composite, Alkali-treatment, Mechanical properties


Nonwoven unidirectional Okra fiber (OF)-reinforced polypropylene (PP) based composites were manufactured by a hot press machine and their interfacial, physicomechanical features, thermal degradation, and weather test were examined. This paper reports the effect of OF content, alkaline treatment of fiber, as well as inclusion of benzoylation as coupling agent on the features of PP/OF composites, was studied. The outcomes indicated that the OFs performed as reinforcing fillers, developing the mechanical features (e.g., tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact strength, and hardness) of the composites. PP/OF composites with benzoylation after alkaline pretreatment exhibited better mechanical features than alkali treatment and untreated composites. The interfacial feature was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it was found that the interfacial interaction between PP and OF was increased due to the treatment of the fibers, which validates the obtained mechanical features of the composite. Moisture absorption experiments have shown that benzoylation treatment of OF composites shows lower water absorption than both alkali-treated and untreated composites. Thermal degradation and weather tests of the composites were also investigated.


Saba N, Paridah MT, Jawaid M. Mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polymer composite: a review. Construction and Building Materials. 2015;76:87-96.

Zaman HU, Khan RA. A novel strategy for fabrication and performance evaluation of bamboo/e-glass fiber-reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites. International Journal of Research. 2021;8:201-11.

Zaman HU. Chemically modified coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composites for furniture applications. International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science. 2020;2: 975-82.

Zaman HU, Khan RA. Acetylation used for natural fiber/polymer composites. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials. 2021;34:3-23.

Morampudi P, Namala KK, Gajjela YK, Barath M, Prudhvi G. Review on glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;43:314-19.

Yavas D, Zhang Z, Liu Q, Wu D. Fracture behavior of 3D printed carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2021;208:108741.

Gogus F, Maskan M. Water adsorption and drying characteristics of okra Hibiscus esculentus L. Drying Technology. 1999;17:883-94.

Mishra A, Pal S. Polyacrylonitrile-grafted Okra mucilage: a renewable reservoir to polymeric materials. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2007;68:95-100.

Alam M, Khan GA. J. Textile Apparel Technol. Management. 2007;5:1.

Khan RA, Zaman HU, Khan MA, Nigar F, Islam T, Islam R, Saha S, Rahman MM, Mustafa A, Gafur M. Effect of the incorporation of PVC on the mechanical properties of the jute-reinforced LLDPE composite. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering. 2010;49:707-12.

De Rosa IM, Kenny JM, Puglia D, Santulli C, Sarasini F. Morphological, thermal and mechanical characterization of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) fibres as potential reinforcement in polymer composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2010;70:116-22.

Zaman HU, Beg M. Preparation, structure, and properties of the coir fiber/polypropylene composites. Journal of Composite Materials. 2014;48:3293-301.

Zaman HU, Beg M. Effect of coir fiber content and compatibilizer on the properties of unidirectional coir fiber/polypropylene composites. Fibers and Polymers. 2014;15:831-8.

Mohanty AK, Khan MA, Hinrichsen G. Surface modification of jute and its influence on performance of biodegradable jute-fabric/Biopol composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2000;60:1115-24.

Zaman HU, Khan MA, Khan RA, Sharmin N. Effect of chemical modifications on the performance of biodegradable photocured coir fiber. Fibers and Polymers. 2011;12:727-33.

Khan MA, Hossain MA, Khan MA, Khan RA, Zaman HU. Mechanical properties of the coir fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites: effect of the incorporation of jute fiber. Journal of Composite Materials. 2010;44:401-16.

Houshyar S, Shanks R, Hodzic A. The effect of fiber concentration on mechanical and thermal properties of fiber?reinforced polypropylene composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2005; 96:2260-72.

Joseph K, Mattoso L, Toledo R, Thomas S, De Carvalho L, Pothen L, Kala S, James B. Natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites. Natural Polymers and Agrofibers Bases Composites. 2000;2000:159-201.

Joseph P, Joseph K, Thomas S. Short sisal fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: the role of interface modification on ultimate properties. Composite Interfaces. 2002;9:171-205.

Saheb DN, Jog JP. Natural fiber polymer composites: a review. Advances in Polymer Technology: Journal of the Polymer Processing Institute. 1999;18:351-63.

Mishra S, Mohanty A, Drzal L, Misra M, Parija S, Nayak S, Tripathy S. Studies on mechanical performance of biofibre/glass reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2003;63:1377-85.

Pasquini D, de Morais Teixeira E, da Silva Curvelo AA, Belgacem MN, Dufresne A. Surface esterification of cellulose fibres: processing and characterisation of low-density polyethylene/cellulose fibres composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2008;68:193-201.




How to Cite

Zaman, H. U., & Khan, R. A. (2022). Surface Modified Benzoylated Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Bast Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites. Advanced Journal of Science and Engineering, 3(1), 7–17.



Original Research Article